I’m not quite finished with it yet, but Paul Woodruff’s recent The Necessity of Theatre: The Art of Watching and Being Watched (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008) makes a compelling case for treating theatre as central to the human experience. Woodruff’s point is not to reiterate the now-familiar claim that theatrical drama importantly mirrors human experience, although I assume he would agree with thinkers like Kenneth Burke (who insisted in his own work that theatricality was not a metaphor for human life, but that our interactions are fundamentally dramatically charged). Rather, theatre, which he defines (repeatedly) as “the art by which human beings make or find human action worth watching, in a measured time and place” (18), enacts much of what is basic to human sociability.
Theatre and life are about watching and the maintenance of appropriate distance, and the way in which collective observation provides validation for human interaction (such as in the ways public witness validates a marriage ceremony or makes justice, itself animated by witnesses, collectively persuasive).
The book is a little frustrating – Woodruff is a philosopher and the book starts by discovering the river (and making its boldest claim up front) and then guiding the reader through all the connected tributaries, and that can be a little tedious when the journey starts to feel less like a riverboat cruise and more like navigating sandbars. That is, the project proceeds too fully as a definitional typology of theatre, an approach that performatively contradicts the most important think about theatre itself: finding audiences and keeping them interested. Woodruff also has a tendency to keep announcing how important his claims are: “Formally, however, I can point out already that [my] definition has an elegance that should delight philosophers trained in the classics” (39). “This is bold” (67). “My proposed definition of theatre is loaded” (68). And so on.
But along the way Woodruff says a lot of interesting things. Some examples:
• “Justice needs a witness. Wherever justice is done in the public eye, there is theatre, and the theatre helps make the justice real” (9).
• “People need theatre. They need it the way they need each other – the way they need to gather, to talk things over, to have stories in common, to share friends and enemies. They need to watch, together, something human. Without this…, well, without this we would be a different sort of species. Theatre is as distinctive of human beings, in my view, as language itself” (11).
• “Politics needs all of us to be witnesses, if we are to be a democracy and if we are to believe that our politics embody justice. In democracy, the people hold their leaders accountable, but the people cannot do this if they are kept in the dark. Leaders who work in closed meetings are darkening the stage of public life and they are threatening justice” (23).
• “The whole art of theatre is the one we must be able to practice in order to secure our bare, naked cultural survival” (26).
• “A performance of Antigone has more in common with a football game than it does with a film of Antigone” (44).
I began by cheating, I suppose, by reading the epilogue, where Woodruff notes: “I do not mean this book to be an answer to Plato and Rousseau…, because I think theatre in our time is not powerful enough to have real enemies. Theatre does have false friends, however, and they would confine it to a precious realm in the fine arts. We need to pull theatre away from its false friends, but we have a greater task. We need to defend theatre against the idea that it is irrelevant, that it is an elitist and a dying art, kept alive by a few cranks in a culture attuned only to film and television. I want to support the entire boldness of my title: The Necessity of Theatre” (231).